GURUKUL INFORMATICS

Active Voice and Passive Voice

The Voice - Active and Passive voice

 

That form of verb which clarifies whether “subject works” or “work is done for the subject” is known as Voice.

1. Raman loves Sangeeta. (Here subject Raman is doing something)
2. Sangeeta is loved by Raman. (Here something is done for the subject Raman)

In the above example no. 1 Raman-the subject- is doing something-love- with Sangeeta.
While is example no. 2 Sangeeta is doing something-love-with the subject Raman.

There are two form of Voice. Which can be interchanged as and when required?

1. Active Voice
2. Passive Voice

These two interchangeable forms of the voice can be recognized by the help of “form of verb”.

Method to change active voice to passive voice

Active form of the Voice

Raman  

loves 

Sangeeta

(Subject)
(in active form)

verb

(Object)

 

Passive form of the Voice

Sangeeta

 is loved   

by Raman

(Subject)  
(in passive form)

 verb 

(Object)

 

In this change from Active voice to Passive voice we have changed:-

  1. Subject to object  
  2. Object to Subject and 
  3. Put “by” before the object along with changing
  4. Verb according to the new subject.

General rules applied during Change of Voice

1. Object is changed to subject

If there is any object case pronoun in object then change it as given below:-

Me

is changed to

I

Her

is changed to

She

Us

is changed to

We

It 

is changed to 

It

You

is changed to

You

Them

is changed to

They

Him

is changed to

He

Whom

is changed to

Who



2. Subject is changed to object and preceded by the word “by”

I

is changed to

by me

She

is changed to

Her

We

is changed to 

by us

It 

is changed to

by it

You

is changed to

by you

They 

is changed to

by them

He

is changed to

Him

Who

is changed to

by whom

 

3. Passive form of verb should be used according to the subject.                                       

Rules of Changes of voice according to the Tenses

1. Present Indefinite Tense

In the sentences written is present Indefinite Tense

  • 1st form + s, es, do, does are changed into 
  • is, are, am + 3rd form of verb.

Active Voice

Passive Voice

Ramesh helps me.

I am helped by Ramesh

They play football.

Football is played by them.

You read  poems.

Poems were read by you.

You see that bird.

That bird is seen by you.

We help the old men.

The old men are helped by us.

He does not sing a song.

A song is not sung by him.

Do  you love me?

Am I loved by you.

What do you eat?

What is eaten by you?

 

2. Present Continuous Tense

In the sentences written is present continuous Tense

  • is/am/are + (1st form + ing)   is changed  into  is/am/are + being + 3rd form  
  • is/am/are + not + (1st form + ing)   is changed  into  is/am/are + not being + 3rd form
  • is/am/are +subject + (1st form + ing)   is changed  into  is/am/are + subject being + 3rd form

Active Voice

Passive Voice

He is playing Cricket.

Cricket is being played by him.

You are not doing the work.

The work is not being done by you.

Is he teaching me?

Am I being taught by him?

Whom are you scolding?

Who is being scolded by you?

Why are you telling gossips?

Why are gossips being told by you?

Who is distracting her?

By whom is she being distracted?

Is he not helping you?

Are you not being helped by him?

 

3. Present Perfect Tense

In the sentences written is present Perfect Tense

  • Has/have+ 3rd form is changed into has/have/+ been + 3rd form  
  • Has/have + not + 3rd form is changed into has/have/+ not been + 3rd form   
  • Has/have + subject + 3rd form is changed into has/have/+subject + been + 3rd form

Active Voice

Passive Voice

He has stolen my books.

My books have been stolen by him.

You have not solved the sum.

The sum has not been solved by you.

Has he polished the shoes?

Have the shoes been polished by him.

Who has abused you?

By whom have you been abused?

When has she helped us?

When have we been helped by her?

What have they purchased?

What have been purchased by them?

 

4. Past Indefinite Tense

In the sentences written is past Indefinite Tense

  • 2nd form is changed into was/were + 3rd form
  • did not + 1st form is changed into was/were + not + 3rd form
  • Has/have + subject + 3rd form is changed into has/have/+subject + been + 3rd form

Active Voice

Passive Voice

Edison invented the first bulb.

First bulb was invented by Edison.

I took coffee yesterday.

Coffee was taken by me yesterday.

They did not sing a song.

A song was not sung by them.

Did we not do the work?

Was the work not done by us?

Who cursed the poor lady?

By whom the poor lady cursed?

Where did you find your pen?

Where was your pen found by you?

 

5. Past Continuous Tense

In the sentences written is present continuous Tense

  • Was/were + (1st form + ing)   is changed into was/were + being + 3rd form
  • Was/were + not + (1st form + ing)   is changed into was/were + not being + 3rd form
  • Was/were + subject + (1st form + ing)   is changed into was/were + subject being + 3rd form

Active Voice

Passive Voice

He was playing Cricket.

Cricket was being played by him.

You were not doing the work.

The work was not being done by you.

Was he teaching me?

Am I being taught by him?

Whom were you scolding?

Who was being scolded by you?

Why were you telling gossips?

Why are gossips being told by you?

Who was distracting her?

By whom is she being distracted?

Was he not helping you?

Are you not being helped by him?

 

6. Past Perfect Tense

In the sentences written is past Perfect Tense

  • had+ 3rd form is changed into had + been + 3rd form 
  • had + not + 3rd form is changed into had+ not been + 3rd form
  • had + subject + 3rd form is changed into had + subject + been + 3rd form

Active Voice

Passive Voice

He had stolen my books.

My books had been stolen by him.

You had not solved the sum.

The sum had not been solved by you.

Had he polished the shoes?

Had the shoes been polished by him?

Who had abused you?

By whom had you been abused?

When had she helped us?

When had we been helped by her?

What had they purchased?

What had been purchased by them?

 

7. Future Indefinite Tense

In the sentences written is future Indefinite Tense

  • Will/Shall + 1st form is changed into will/shell + be + 3rd form
  • Will/Shall + not + 1st form is changed into will/shell + not be + 3rd form

Active Voice

Passive Voice

I shall write many books.

Many books will be written by me.

We shall not sing songs.

Songs will not be sung by us.

Will she snatch my pen?

Will my pens be snatched by her?

Will you not help her?

Will she not be helped by you?

Why will she not pay the rent?

Why will the fine not be paid by her?

What will you eat today?

What will be eaten by you today?

 

8. Future Perfect Tense

In the sentences written in future perfect Tense

1.  Will/shall have + 3rd form is changed into will/shell have + been + 3rd form

Active Voice

Passive Voice

I shall have written many books.

Many books will have been written by me.

We shall have sung songs.

Songs will have been sung by us.

Will she have snatched my pen?

Will my pens have been snatched by her?

Will you have not helped her?

Will she have not been helped by you?

Why will she have not paid the rent?

Why will the fine have not been paid by her?

What will have you eaten today?

What will have been eaten by you today?

 

9. Verbs followed by Modals

In the sentences where verbs are followed by modals (can, may, could, should, must etc):-

1. Be is inserted in between verb and Modal while converting Active voice to Passive voice

Active Voice

Passive Voice

I can life this heavy bag.

This heavy bag can be lifted by me.

He could not buy a costly house.

A costly house cannot be bought by him.

You should not waste your money.

Your money should not be wasted by you.

Would you return my bag?

Would my bag be returned by you?

May I help you?

May you be helped by me?

Who will solve this puzzle?

By whom this puzzle be solved?

 

10. Change of voice in Imperative Sentences

1.Words like please, kindly, let are replaced by Let + new object + be/ not be +3rd form
2.Sentence involving request, advice, order are started with You are requested/advised/ordered

Active Voice

Passive Voice

Close the door.

Let the door be closed.

Do not oppress the poor.

Let the poor not be oppressed.

Make coffee at once.

Let tea be made at once.

Never tell a lie.

Let a lie never be told.

Please sign this form.

You are requested to sign this form.

Kindly do not lose heart.

You are requested not to lose heart.

 

11.Change of voice in Infinite Verbs

In the infinite verbs

To + 1st form of the verb is changed to To + be + 3rd form of the verb

Active Voice

Passive Voice

We ought to respect our teachers.

We ought to respect our teachers.

There is no shop to let.

There is no shop to be let.

She wants to insult me.

She wants me to be insulted.

I expect her to finish the task in time.

I expect the work to be finished by her in time.

Girls like boys to flatter them.

Girls like to be flattered by boys.

It is time to repay the money.

It is time for the money to be repaid.

You have to remove your car.

Your can has to be removed by you.

 


12. Change of voice in the sentences where two objects are given

In these types of sentences the objects near to the verb are changed to subjects.

Active Voice

Passive Voice

He teaches us English

We are taught English by them.

We refused them permission.

They were refused permission by us.

She has given me a book.

A book has been given to me by her.

I Shall give you hundred rupees.

She will be given hundred rupees by me.

 


13. Change of voice in the sentences where verb is followed by a preposition.

In such sentences 1st form of the verb is replaced by the 3rd form and followed by the same preposition.

Active Voice

Passive Voice

He is listening to me

I am being listened to by him.

A bus ran over a child.

A child was run over by a bus.

Who was shouting at the poor man?

By whom was the poor man being shouted at?

She will not object to my proposal.

My proposal will not be objected to by her.

 

 

14. Change of voice in certain sentences where “BY” is not used in Passive voice.

Active Voice

Passive Voice

The principal’s speech impressed many students.

Many students were impressed with the principal’s speech.

Her death shocked all.

All were shocked at her death.

Your behavior annoyed me.

I was annoyed at your behavior.

Social work interests me.

I am interested in the social work.